Current Ethiopian political climate
The political framework of Ethiopia is governed by the federal parliamentary republic which is headed by the Prime Ministers and the executive power is kept by Ethiopian government. In the present system, the prime minister election is by the parliament and the legislative powers are held by both the chambers of the parliament and the government. The constitution of Ethiopia was formed in 1994, which is based on bicameral parliamentary system.
The House of Federation – The House of Federation has 108 seats and the Members are chosen by the state assembly for five years.
House of Peoples Representatives- House of Peoples Representatives has 547 seats and the representatives are chosen by direct elections and the members elect the president, who serves for six years.
Formation of provisional government in Eritrea
The Mengistu regime government was defeated in May 1991 by Tigrayan People's Liberation Front (TPLF) and Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) , which was an ally fighting against Mengistu regime and it formed a temporary government in Eritrea when it got independence in the year 1993.
On May 24, 1993, after achieving independence, Ethiopia held its first elections in May – June 1994 for 547 seats of constituent assembly. In December 1994, the assembly was formed on the terms of constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and the regional legislature was held in May- June 1995.
Role of opposition parties
The leading opposition parties of Ethiopia are – United Ethiopian Democratic Forces, Somali People's Democratic Party, United Ethiopian Democratic Party-Medhin Party, EDL, All Ethiopian Unity Party, Gambela People's Democratic Movement, Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement, Oromo People's Congress, and the Benishangul-Gumuz People's Democratic Unity Front.
The opposition parties headed by many leading representative groups of the country adopted to boycott the elections and Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) registered a massive victory in the elections. After the elections the position parties claimed if they had taken part they would have won the elections.
Formation of the first government
The first government based on the current Federal Democratic Republic constitutions was formed in August 1995 and Negasso Gidada was elected as the first president of the country. Ethiopia has 9 semi autonomous locations which are controlled by the center and provided with revenues for effective governance. During his leadership, Prime Minister Meles Zenawi gave powers to ethical authorities which were controlled by the central government.
Prime Minister Meles Zenawi was reelected in 2000 elections and Girma Wolde -Giorgis was elected the incumbent president of the country.
May 2005 elections
In May 2005, general elections were held in Ethiopia which drew about 90% of voters and in an African Union report it was claimed the elections displayed the commitment of people to democracy.
After the elections Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front party got 327 seats, Coalition for Unity and Democracy party got 109 seats, United Ethiopian Democratic Forces got 52 seats, Somali People's Democratic Party got 24 seats and Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement got 11 seats. Seven other parties won 23 seats.
In September 2005, the results were declared and it was believed the elections created a new milestone in the democratic system of Ethiopia but it was complained by the opposition that the ruling party was involved in frauds and rigging in many constituencies.
Oppositions against the elections
On 5 September, when the final results were declared by the National Elections Board of Ethiopia it showed the ruling party retained control over the government but there was a n increase of the opposition parties who also increased share of seats from twelve to hundred-seventy-six. The Coalition for Unity and Democracy got all the sets of Addis Ababa including the parliamentary and City Council .the declaration of results was followed by new protests against the new parliament. Thousands of people remained in custody after the protests and 119 are still facing trials after the protests.